MORAL BASIS OF EDUCATION AND THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN HIGHEST VALUES HIERARCHY
Petr I. Smirnov and Philipp P. Smirnov
ABSTRACT - One of the most important functions of education is the function of moral education – transmitting of values accepted in a society. Globalizing society is in need of universally accepted system of values. Otherwise, conflicts between groups (bearers of different values) will be escalating. Presently, there is a tendency to establish human and human rights as the highest all-human value that is partly reflected in the UN charter. This value underlies the basis of the Western (market) civilization. However, self-realization of a human in the Western society through such all-human values as wealth and economy causes global problems, in particular, ecological one. Theoretically, one of the following values can be accepted as the highest one: society, mankind, nature, thinking spirit (God). Analysis of the consequences that happen – depending on the choice of the highest value – leads to conclusion that thinking spirit must be acknowledged as the highest value. In order to simplify this value for the perception of everyday's conscience – it can be described as «intelligent life whose bearer is humanity». This article suggests that: 1) sociologists of all countries need to discuss and accept hierarchy of the highest all human values, 2) politicians need to establish it as the moral basis of the international law in the UN charter, 3) people employed in the education system need to include it in their educational programs all over the world.
Keywords: education, hierarchy, moral, values